Cerebral palsy, a neurological condition that is caused by brain damage, is the most common motor or movement disability in childhood. It can affect balance, movement, or muscle tone. “Cerebral,” means that the disorder is related to the brain. “Palsy” refers to weakness or a problem with the muscles.
Erb palsy is a disease characterized by arm weakness and loss of movement. It can happen to babies and adults. It is usually caused by a newborn’s physical injury during childbirth or a traumatic downward force on the upper arm and shoulder, which can damage the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus is a neural network near the neck that provides movement and sensation to the shoulders, arms, hands, and fingers.
Under normal circumstances, the structure of the human foot allows us to walk in an upright position. Our feet are made up of bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, and they also hold everything in place. This makes them stable and powerful, as well as flexible and adaptable. Due to external factors, certain postures or foot diseases, the feet can be deformed. Foot deformities can, but not always, cause problems, such as pain and difficulty walking. There are many types of foot deformities.
It is a defect in the development of the neural tube prior to birth. It occurs when the spinal cord, brain or meninges (their protective coating) do not fully develop. It can appear anywhere along the spine, and can usually be seen at birth through an opening in the baby’s back. You may also see it as a sack filled with fluid that has developed outside of the spine.
Meningitis refers to inflammation of the fluids and membranes, surrounding your brain and spinal cord. Meningitis is characterized by a stiff neck, headaches, fever, and swelling. Meningitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection. However, there are also bacterial, parasitic, and fungal causes.
Myelomeningocele, a severe spina bifida, is when the spinal cord and nerves are located outside the body. It is visible outside the back. This can cause weakness and loss below the sac. This can lead to muscle weakness, paralysis, bowel problems, bladder problems, excess fluid on the brain, and changes in the brain’s positioning, seizures, and other orthopedic conditions.
Juvenile arthritis (JA), also called pediatric rheumatic disease, is not a specific condition. It is a general term that describes rheumatic and inflammatory diseases that occur in children younger than 16. The majority of JAs are autoimmune, or autoinflammatory. This means that the immune system, which is supposed to fight foreign invaders such as germs and viruses, becomes confused and releases inflammatory chemicals, which attack healthy cells and tissues. Most JA cases cause joint inflammation, swelling, and tenderness. However, some types of JA only affect the skin or internal organs.
Congenital Heart Disease, also known as a congenital defect of the heart, is a condition that affects the heart at birth. This problem can cause damage to the heart walls, heart valves, or blood vessels. CHDs can be present at birth and affect the structure and function of the baby’s heart. They can alter blood flow through the heart and out into the rest of the body. CHDs may range from mild (like a small hole or defect in the heart) up to severe (like missing or badly formed parts of your heart).
Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, and weak muscle tone during infancy. Although all affected people experience cognitive delays, the intellectual disability is typically mild to moderate. Down syndrome sufferers often display a distinctive facial appearance, with a flattened face, pointed outside corners of the eyes, small ears, and a stick-like tongue.
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that impairs female development. Turner syndrome’s most prominent feature is short stature. This condition usually manifests by age 5. It is very common to experience an early loss of ovarian function, ovarian hypofunction, or premature ovarian death. Although the ovaries are normally developed at birth, egg cells (oocytes), which usually die before they reach maturity, and most of the ovarian tissue that has degenerated prior to birth, often die prematurely.